# Reciprocal, RSqrt, and Sqrt

Preferred way to use reciprocal and sqrt functions

On the PowerVR Rogue architecture, the reciprocal operation is directly supported by an
instruction (`RCP`

):

fragColor.x = 1.0 / t.x;// one cycle{frcp}

The same is true with the `inversesqrt()`

function (`RSQ`

):

fragColor.x = inversesqrt(t.x);// one cycle{frsq}

However, `sqrt()`

is implemented as: `1 / (1/sqrt(x))`

.

This results in a two cycle cost:

fragColor.x = sqrt(t.x);// two cycles{frsq} {frcp}

A commonly used alternative: `x * 1/sqrt(x)`

gives the same two cycle
results.

fragColor.x = t.x * inversesqrt(t.x);// two cycles{frsq} {sop, sop}

The only case when it is better to use the above alternative is if the result is tested. In this case, the test instructions can fit into the second instruction.

fragColor.x = sqrt(t.x) > 0.5 ? 0.5 : 1.0;// three cycles{frsq} {frcp} {mov, mov, pck, tstg, mov} --> fragColor.x = (t.x * inversesqrt(t.x)) > 0.5 ? 0.5 : 1.0;// two cycles{frsq} {fmul, pck, tstg, mov}